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Use of battery-powered systems acquire broadcast as consumers acquire migrated to carriageable phones, MP3 players, agenda cameras, and more. One acumen for this advance has been the availability of batteries and power-management ICs that lath the adapted abutment for added circuitous cyberbanking systems. Fig. 9-1 shows the basal power-management subsystem active in a battery-based system. 

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To be effective, these power-management subsystems must: 

• Abbreviate array admeasurement and weight while maximizing attainable run time. 

• Lath the adapted adapted achievement voltage over the defined ascribe voltage ambit and bulk current. 

• Abbreviate all-embracing amplitude and weight for associated components. 

• Abbreviate calefaction amusement to annihilate the allegation for adult thermal administration that adds size, weight, and cost. 

• Acquiesce a circuit-board blueprint that minimizes EMI. 

• Aerate arrangement reliability.

9-1. A archetypal battery-based power-management subsystem consists of distinct or multiple-function ICs. 

To accommodated these architecture objectives, the power-management subsystem architecture begins with the battery, which may be a non-rechargeable primary array or a rechargeable accessory battery. Primary array examples are acrid and lithium metal cells. Popular rechargeable batteries are nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), and lithium-polymer (Li-pol). 

Lithium-ion batteries acquire the greatest electrochemical abeyant and the able activity body per weight. The Li-ion array is safe, provided assertive precautions are met back charging and discharging. Li-ion activity body is about alert that of the accepted NiCd. Besides aerial capacity, the bulk characteristics are analytic acceptable and behave analogously to the NiCd in agreement of acquittal characteristics. Its almost aerial corpuscle voltage (2.7V to 4.2V) allows one-cell array packs. 

Exercise attention back administration and testing Li-ion batteries. Do not short-circuit, overcharge, crush, drop, mutilate, penetrate, administer about-face polarity, betrayal to aerial temperature, or disassemble. Use the Li-ion array with its appointed aegis circuit. 

The Li-pol array differs from the Li-ion blazon in its fabrication, ruggedness, safety, and thin-profile geometry. Unlike the Li-ion, the Li-pol has basal crisis of flammability because it does not use a aqueous or gelled electrolyte like the Li-ion. The Li-pol has simpler packaging and a lower contour than the accepted Li-ion battery. 

Battery chemistries acquire different requirements for their allegation technique, which is analytical for maximizing capacity, aeon life, and safety. Beeline cartography works able-bodied in applications with low-power (e.g., one- or two-cell Li-ion) array packs that are answerable at beneath than 1A. However, switch-mode cartography is bigger ill-fitted for ample (e.g., three or four alternation Li-Ion or assorted NiCd/NiMH) array packs that crave allegation ante of 1A and above. Switch-mode cartography is added able and minimizes calefaction bearing during charging, but can aftermath EMI if not packaged properly. 

The allegation and acquittal accommodation of a accessory array is in agreement of “C,” accustomed as ampere-hours (Ah). The absolute array accommodation depends on the C-rate and temperature. Best carriageable batteries are rated at 1C. A acquittal of 1C draws a accepted according to the rated capacity, that is, a array rated at 1000mAh provides 1000mA for one hour if absolved at 1C rate. 

9-2. Texas Instruments’ Bq24259 is a switch-mode battery-charge administration and arrangement power-path administration IC for one-cell Li-ion and Li-polymer batteries.

Li-ion batteries acquire a college voltage per cell, tighter voltage tolerance, and the absence of crawl or float allegation back extensive abounding charge. Allegation time for Li-ion batteries answerable at a 1C antecedent accepted is about three hours. Abounding allegation occurs afterwards extensive the aerial voltage beginning and the accepted drops and levels off at about 3% of the nominal allegation current. Increasing Li-ion allegation accepted has little aftereffect on abridgement the allegation time. Although it alcove the voltage aiguille faster with college current, the topping allegation will booty longer. Li-ion batteries cannot blot overcharge, which can account the corpuscle to overheat. Li-ion constant-current- constant-voltage (CCCV) chargers are important to get the best activity into the battery, afterwards overvoltage. 

Performance and constancy of rechargeable batteries depends on the affection of the charger IC. One blazon of charger IC (used alone for NiCd) applies a anchored allegation bulk of about 0.1C (one tenth of the rated capacity). A faster charger takes three to six hours with a allegation bulk of about 0.3C. 

A charger for NiMH batteries could additionally lath NiCds, but not carnality versa because a NiCd charger could blackmail a NiMH battery. Lithium-based chargers crave tighter allegation algorithms and voltages. Avoid a allegation bulk over 1C for lithium array packs because aerial currents can abet lithium plating. With best lithium packs, a allegation aloft 1C is not attainable because the aegis ambit banned the bulk of accepted the array can accept. 

The bq24259 from Texas Instruments is a switch-mode array charge-management and system-power-path administration accessory for a one-cell Li-Ion and Li-polymer array (Fig. 9-2). Its low-impedance adeptness aisle optimizes switch-mode operation efficiency, reduces array charging time, and extends array activity during absolution phase. 

The IC supports 3.9 V to 6.2 V USB ascribe sources, including a accepted USB host anchorage and USB charging anchorage with 6.4 V overvoltage protection. It additionally supports USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 adeptness blueprint with ascribe accepted and voltage regulation. 

The power-path administration regulates the arrangement hardly aloft array voltage, but does not bead beneath 3.5 V minimum arrangement voltage (programmable). With this feature, the arrangement keeps operating alike back the array is absolutely depleted or removed. Back the ascribe antecedent accepted or voltage absolute is reached, the power-path administration automatically reduces the allegation accepted to aught and again discharges the array until the arrangement adeptness claim is met. This supplement-mode operation keeps the ascribe antecedent from accepting overloaded.

The IC initiates and completes a charging aeon back host ascendancy is not available. It automatically accuse the array in three phases: 

1. Pre-conditioning    2. Affiliated accepted  3. Affiliated voltage 

In the end, the charger automatically terminates back the allegation accepted is beneath a preset absolute in the affiliated voltage phase. Later on, back the array voltage avalanche beneath the recharge threshold, the charger will automatically alpha accession charging cycle.

Safety appearance for array charging and arrangement operation include:

• Negative thermistor monitoring

• Charging assurance timer

• Overvoltage protection

• Overcurrent protection

The thermal acclimation reduces allegation accepted back the alliance temperature exceeds 120°C (programmable). An achievement letters the charging cachet and any accountability conditions. And the IC anon notifies host back accountability occurs.

Maxim Integrated’s MAX8900 is a high-frequency switch-mode charger for a 1-cell Li or Li-Poly array (Fig. 9-3). It delivers up to 1.2A to the array from 3.4V to 6.3V (MAX8900A/MAX8900C) or 3.4V to 8.7V (MAX8900B).The 3.25MHz switch-mode charger is alluringly ill-fitted to baby carriageable accessories such as headsets and ultra-portable media players because it minimizes basic admeasurement and heat. 

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The MAX8900 is adequate adjoin ascribe voltages as aerial as 22V and as low as -22V. Array aegis appearance accommodate low-voltage prequalification, charge-fault timer, die-temperature monitoring, and array temperature monitoring. The array temperature ecology adjusts the allegation accepted and abortion voltage as declared in the JEITA (Japan Electronics and Advice Technology Industries Association) blueprint for safe use of accessory Li batteries. 

Charge ambit are adjustable with alien components. An alien attrition adjusts the allegation accepted from 50mA to 1200mA. Accession alien attrition adjusts the prequalification and done-current thresholds from 10mA to 200mA. The done-current beginning is absolute accurate, accomplishing ±1mA at the 10mA level. The allegation timer is adjustable with an alien capacitor. 

A proprietary hysteretic-current PWM ascendancy arrangement ensures aerial efficiency, fast switching, and physically tiny alien components. Inductor ripple accepted is internally set to lath 3.25MHz. At absolute aerial assignment factors, back the ascribe voltage is bargain abutting to the achievement voltage, the steady-state assignment arrangement does not acquiesce 3.25MHz operation because of the minimum off-time. The ambassador again provides minimum off-time, aiguille accepted regulation. Similarly, back the ascribe voltage is too aerial to acquiesce 3.25MHz operation due to the minimum on-time, the ambassador becomes a minimum on-time, basin accepted regulator. 

To anticipate ascribe accepted transients, the bulk of change of the ascribe accepted (di/dt) and allegation accepted is limited. Back the ascribe is valid, the allegation accepted ramps from 0mA to the fast-charge accepted bulk in 1.5ms. Allegation accepted additionally soft-starts back transitioning from the prequalification accompaniment to the fast-charge state. There is no di/dt attached back transitioning from the done accompaniment to the fast-charge state. 

Portable systems are acute to attainable array life. This is decidedly important for computers breadth a accident of adeptness could beggarly a accident of stored data. Therefore, it is advantageous to lath a real-time adumbration of absolute array life. One admission is a array adviser that accumulates array abstracts and transmits it to a host processor. Accession admission is a “gas gauge” that displays array activity aural its associated equipment. 

Battery monitors are mixed-signal ICs that accommodate agenda anamnesis and registers that abundance array data. Analog circuits accommodate temperature sensors and amplifiers, as able-bodied as interface circuits. To admeasurement array current, a adviser usually includes either an centralized or alien accepted faculty resistor. Voltage and accepted abstracts are usually via an on-chip A/D converter.

 

9-3. Maxim’s MAX8900 is a high-frequency switch-mode charger for a one-cell Li or Li-polymer battery.

One band-aid to this battery-sensitive bearings is to accommodate a agency for accouterment a real-time adumbration of absolute array activity to the arrangement user. Array monitors are absolutely data-acquisition systems that accrue abstracts accompanying to array ambit and again address the array abstracts to a host processor. 

Battery monitors are mixed-signal ICs that absorb both analog and agenda circuits. These monitors accommodate one or added types of agenda anamnesis and appropriate registers to authority array data. Analog circuits accommodate temperature sensors and amplifiers, as able-bodied as some interface circuits. 

To admeasurement array current, the monitors usually accommodate either an centralized or alien accepted faculty resistor. Voltage and accepted abstracts are usually via an on-chip A/D converter. 

Among the monitored array ambit are blackmail (overvoltage), overdischarge (undervoltage), and boundless allegation and acquittal currents (overcurrent, abbreviate circuit), advice of authentic accent in Li-ion array systems. In some agency a array adviser assumes some of the functions of a aegis ambit by attention the array from adverse overcharging and overcurrent conditions. 

9-4. Intersil’s ISL94203 is a stand-alone battery-pack adviser that provides adviser and aegis functions.

Intersil’s ISL94203 is a stand-alone battery-pack adviser that provides adviser and aegis functions afterwards appliance an alien microcontroller (Fig. 9-4). The IC locates the power-control FETs on the aerial ancillary with a congenital allegation pump for active N-Channel FETs. The accepted faculty resistor is additionally on the aerial side.

Power is minimized in all areas, with genitalia of the ambit powered bottomward a majority of the time, to extend array life. At the aforementioned time, its RGO achievement stays on, so that any affiliated microcontroller can abide on best of the time.

The ISL94203 includes:

• Eight-cell voltage monitors that abutment Li-ion CoO2, Li-ion Mn2O4 and Li-ion FePO4 chemistries

• Ascribe akin shifter to accredit ecology of array assemblage voltages

• 14-bit ADC converter, with voltage readings akin and adored as 12-bit results

• 1.8V voltage advertence (0.8% accurate)

• 2.5V regulator, with the voltage maintained during sleep

• Automatic browse of the corpuscle voltages; overvoltage, undervoltage, and beddy-bye voltage monitoring

• Selectable overcurrent apprehension settings

• 8 acquittal overcurrent thresholds

• 8 allegation overcurrent thresholds

• 8 abbreviate ambit thresholds

• 12-bit programmable acquittal overcurrent adjournment time

• 12-bit programmable allegation overcurrent adjournment time

• 12-bit programmable circumlocute adjournment time

• Current-sense adviser with accretion that provides the adeptness to apprehend the current-sense voltage

• Second alien temperature sensor for use in ecology the backpack or adeptness FET temperatures

• EEPROM for autumn operating ambit and a user breadth for accepted purpose backpack information

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• Corpuscle acclimation uses alien FETs with centralized accompaniment apparatus or alien microcontroller 

The gas-gauge IC is usually begin aural the array pack. Because specific inputs on the gas-gauge IC affix anon to the battery, those inputs allegation absorb absolute little power. Otherwise, array activity will be bargain during continued accumulator periods. Initially, the array allegation be absolutely answerable and the counters and registers set to states constant with a absolutely answerable battery. As acquittal occurs, the gas-gauge IC advance the bulk of allegation removed from the battery. 

Most array gas gauges atone for both temperature and charge/discharge rate. Typically, it displays the attainable allegation on LEDs and additionally can accelerate the allegation abstracts to an alien processor via an I/O port. The LED presentation usually consists of bristles or six segments of a “thermometer” display. To conserve array power, the affectation is alone activated at the user’s command. At abounding charge, all the LED segments are lit. As array activity decreases, the gas-gauge IC extinguishes alternating segments on the thermometer display. 

9-5. Texas Instruments’ bq27741-G1 provides ammunition appraisal for single-cell Li-ion array packs.

The gas-gauge IC calculates the attainable allegation of the array while compensating for array temperature because the absolute attainable allegation is bargain at lower temperatures. For example, if the gas-gauge IC indicates that the array is 60% abounding at 25°C, again the IC indicates 40% abounding back cooled to 0°C, which is the predicted attainable allegation at that temperature. Back the temperature allotment to 25°C, the displayed accommodation allotment to 60%. This ensures that the adumbrated accommodation is consistently conservatively adumbrative of the allegation attainable for use beneath the accustomed conditions. 

Depending on the array type, the gas-gauge IC additionally adjusts the attainable allegation for the almost centralized self-discharge of the battery. It adjusts self-discharge based on the alleged rate, delayed time, array allegation level, and temperature. This acclimation provides a bourgeois appraisal of self-discharge that occurs artlessly and that is a cogent antecedent of acquittal in systems that are not answerable about or are stored at animated temperatures. 

The gas-gauge IC is usually packaged aural the array pack. Because specific inputs on the gas-gauge IC affix anon to the battery, those inputs allegation absorb absolute little power. Otherwise, array activity will be bargain during continued accumulator periods. 

The array gas barometer continuously compensates for both temperature and charge/discharge rate. Typically, it displays the attainable allegation on LEDs and additionally can accelerate the allegation abstracts to an alien processor via an I/O port. The LED presentation usually consists of bristles or six segments of a “thermometer” display. To conserve array power, the affectation is alone activated at the user’s discretion. 

Battery gas-gauge ICs apply mixed-signal, analog, and agenda circuits. One address is to use analog circuits to adviser array accepted by barometer the voltage bead beyond a low-value resistor (typically 20mW to 100mW) in alternation with the battery. This provides the allegation ascribe to the array and the allegation afterwards removed from the battery. Chip over time, the scaled voltage drives centralized agenda counters and registers. The counters and registers clue the bulk of allegation attainable from the battery, the bulk of allegation removed from the array back it was aftermost full, and the best contempo calculation bulk apery “battery full.” 

Texas Instruments’ bq27741-G1 Li-ion array ammunition barometer is a microcontroller borderline that provides ammunition appraisal for single-cell Li-Ion array packs (Fig. 9-5). The accessory requires little arrangement microcontroller firmware development for authentic array ammunition gauging. The ammunition barometer resides aural the array backpack or on the system’s capital lath with an anchored array (non-removable). 

Cell advice is stored in the ammunition barometer in non-volatile beam memory. Abounding of these abstracts beam locations are attainable during appliance development. They cannot, generally, be accessed anon during end-equipment operation. To admission these locations, use alone commands, a arrangement of data-flash-access commands.

The key to the high-accuracy gas-gauging anticipation is the proprietary Impedance Clue algorithm. This algorithm uses corpuscle measurements, characteristics, and backdrop to actualize state-of-charge predictions that can accomplish beneath than 1% absurdity beyond a advanced array of operating altitude and over the lifetime of the battery.

The ammunition barometer provides: 

• Hardware-based overvoltage 

• Hardware-based undervoltage 

• Overcurrent in allegation or discharge 

• Circumlocute protection

Information provided includes:

• Absolute array capacity(mAh)

• State-of-charge (%)

• Run-time to abandoned (minimum)

• Array voltage (mV) and temperature (°C)

• Vital ambit recorded throughout array lifetime

An added claim for Li-ion array packs is a aegis ambit that banned anniversary cell’s aiguille voltage during allegation and prevents the voltage from bottomward too low on discharge. The aegis ambit banned the best allegation and acquittal accepted and monitors the corpuscle temperature. This protects adjoin overvoltage, undervoltage, blackmail current, and overdischarge accepted in array packs 

Ideally, the aegis ambit should absorb no accepted back the battery-powered arrangement is angry off. However, the protector consistently consumes some baby current. A single-cell rechargeable Li aegis IC provides cyberbanking assurance functions adapted for rechargeable Li applications including attention the array during charge, aegis of the ambit from accident during periods of balance accepted breeze and access of array activity by attached the akin of corpuscle depletion. Aegis is facilitated by electronically disconnecting the allegation and acquittal advice aisle with switching accessories such as bargain N-channel adeptness MOSFETs. 

The S-8240A Alternation monitors the voltage of the array affiliated amid VDD pin and VSS pin, the voltage amid VM pin and VSS pin to ascendancy charging and absolution (Fig. 9-6). Back the array voltage is in the ambit from overdischarge apprehension voltage (VDL) to blackmail apprehension voltage (VCU), and the VM pin voltage is in the ambit from allegation overcurrent apprehension voltage (VCIOV) to acquittal overcurrent apprehension voltage (VDIOV), the S-8240A Alternation turns both the allegation and acquittal ascendancy FETs on. This action is alleged the accustomed status, and in this action charging and absolution can be agitated out freely.

9-6. The S-8240A Alternation from S.I.I. monitors the voltage of the array affiliated amid VDD pin and VSS pin and the voltage amid VM pin and VSS pin to ascendancy charging and discharging.

The attrition amid VDD pin and VM pin (RVMD), and the attrition amid VM pin and VSS pin (RVMS) are not affiliated in the accustomed status.

When the array voltage becomes college than VCU during charging in the accustomed cachet and the action continues for the blackmail apprehension adjournment time (tCU) or longer, the S-8240A Alternation turns the allegation ascendancy FET off to stop charging. This action is alleged the blackmail status.

The blackmail cachet is appear in the afterward two cases.

1. In the case that the VM pin voltage is lower than VDIOV, the S-8240A Alternation releases the blackmail cachet back the array voltage avalanche beneath blackmail absolution voltage (VCL).

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2. In the case that the VM pin voltage is according to or college than VDIOV, the S-8240A Alternation releases the blackmail cachet back the array voltage avalanche beneath VCU.

When the acquittal is started by abutting a bulk afterwards the blackmail detection, the VM pin voltage rises by the Vf voltage of the abject diode than the VSS pin voltage, because the acquittal accepted flows through the abject diode in the allegation ascendancy FET. If this VM pin voltage is according to or college than VDIOV, the S-8240A Alternation releases the blackmail cachet back the array voltage is according to or lower than VCU.

Virtually all battery-based systems are advised for carriageable operation. As such, their adeptness converters acquire requirements that behest the associated configurations. This additionally agency that the advocate ICs should crave absolute few alien apparatus and any that are acclimated should be bargain types. Also, to abbreviate admeasurement and weight, the IC should be packaged in some anatomy of BGA package. In addition, the appliance will actuate what aggregate of buck, boost, or buck-boost functions will be available. 

One tradeoff in selecting a advocate IC is whether it employs alien or on-chip adeptness MOSFET switches. On-chip accessories abbreviate alien components, but acquire a addiction to access the alliance temperature and abase thermal performance. Depending on the amalgamation employed, this could additionally abate the accepted accustomed accommodation of the advocate IC. 

One architecture appliance is abbreviation adeptness blown by the adeptness converter, which in about-face increases array run time. Best advocate ICs acquire a abeyance pin that disables the achievement voltage, acid array drain. This can be done in abounding systems that acquire a accustomed “sleep” mode. Back the IC comes out of the abeyance mode, it has to do so afterwards abashing the system. Additionally attainable in best battery-based advocate ICs is undervoltage lockout (UVLO) that shuts bottomward the adeptness accumulation if the ascribe voltage drops beneath a specific threshold. Therefore, if the array achievement voltage drops too far, the accumulation will shut down. Accession appropriate of these advocate ICs is aegis adjoin overcurrent, which protects both the ambassador IC and the arrangement components. This is able by analysis accepted to the bulk and acid adeptness for an afflict condition. 

An important architecture appliance is aspersing the supply’s adeptness dissipation, which increases array run time. This is aided by a abeyance pin that disables the adeptness supply, acid array drain. Back the IC comes out of the abeyance mode, it has to do so afterwards breeding a brief that upsets the system. 

Also attainable in best battery-based accumulation ICs is undervoltage lockout (UVLO) that disables the adeptness accumulation if the array achievement voltage drops too low. 

Most of these accumulation ICs assure adjoin overcurrent, which protects both the IC and arrangement components. This involves a accepted sensor that monitors bulk accepted and cuts adeptness for an overload. 

For all switching adeptness supplies, blueprint is an important architecture consideration, abnormally at aerial aiguille currents and aerial switching frequencies. If the blueprint is not anxiously done, the accumulation IC could become ambiguous or aftermath EMI. This requires advanced and abbreviate traces for the capital accepted aisle and for the adeptness arena tracks. The ascribe capacitor, achievement capacitor, and the inductor should be placed as abutting as attainable to the IC. 

The acknowledgment affiliate should be placed as abutting as attainable to the ascendancy arena pin of the IC. In laying out the ascendancy ground, use abbreviate traces afar from the adeptness arena traces. 

Maxim’s MAX14720 is a bunched power-management band-aid for space-constrained, battery-powered applications breadth admeasurement and adeptness are analytical (Fig. 9-7). This IC integrates a adeptness switch, beeline regulator, blade regulator, and buck-boost regulator.

The MAX14720 is advised to be the primary power-management accessory and is ideal for either non-rechargeable array (coin-cell, bifold alkaline) applications or for rechargeable solutions breadth the array is disposable and answerable separately. The accessory includes a button adviser and sequencer.

9-7. Maxim’s MAX14720 is a bunched power-management band-aid that integrates a adeptness switch, beeline regulator, blade regulator, and buck-boost regulator.

There are two programmable micro-IQ, high-efficiency switching converters: a buck-boost regulator and a ancillary blade regulator. These regulators affection a access approach for added adeptness during light-load operation.

A low-dropout beeline regulator has a programmable output. It can additionally accomplish as a adeptness about-face that can abstract the quiescent bulk of arrangement peripherals.

This IC additionally includes a adeptness about-face with battery-monitoring capability. The about-face can abstract the array from all arrangement endless to aerate array activity back not operating. It is additionally acclimated to abstract the battery-impedance measurements. This about-face can additionally accomplish as a general-purpose bulk switch.

The MAX14720 includes a programmable adeptness ambassador that allows the accessory to be configured either for use in applications that crave a accurate off accompaniment or for always-on applications. This ambassador provides a delayed displace signal, voltage sequencing, and customized button timing for on/off ascendancy and accretion adamantine reset.

This IC is attainable in a 25-bump, 0.4mm pitch, 2.26mm x 2.14mm wafer-level amalgamation (WLP) and accomplish over the -40°C to 85°C continued temperature range.

These ICs accomplish assorted functions in a battery-based system. Among these functions are array charging, dc-dc conversion, array protection, array monitoring, and power-source selection. 

For example, an IC integrates PWM adeptness ascendancy for charging a array and converting the array voltage to a adapted output. Also, it can accompanying allegation the array while powering a arrangement bulk from an able ac bank adapter. Combining these appearance into a distinct IC produces a abate breadth and lower-cost band-aid compared to anon attainable multi-IC solutions. The IC shares the detached apparatus for both the array charger and the dc-dc converter, aspersing admeasurement and bulk about to bifold ambassador solutions. Both the array charger and dc-dc advocate use a current-mode flyback cartography for aerial adeptness and accomplished brief response. Optional Access Approach operation and power-down approach acquiesce adeptness density, efficiency, and achievement ripple to be tailored to the application. 

9-8. Texas Instruments’ TPS65010 is an chip power-supply and battery-management IC.

The IC provides a complete Li-Ion array charger with allegation abortion timer, preset Li-Ion array voltages, overvoltage and undervoltage protection, and user-programmable constant-current charging. Automatic array recharging, shorted-cell detection, and open-drain C/10 and wall-plug ascertain outputs are additionally provided. User programming allows NiMH and NiCd array chemistries to be answerable as well. 

Texas Instruments’ TPS65010 is an chip adeptness and array administration IC for applications powered by one Li-ion or Li-polymer cell, and which crave assorted adeptness balustrade (Fig. 9-8). The adeptness antecedent apparatus include:

• 1A step-down advocate for I/O and borderline apparatus (VMAIN)

• 400mA, 90% able step-down advocate for processor amount (VCORE)

• 2x 200mA LDOs for I/O and borderline components, LDO accredit through bus

• Serial interface accordant with I2C, supports 100kHz, 400 Hz operation

• 70µA quiescent current

• 1% advertence voltage

• Thermal abeyance protection

The TPS65010 charger automatically selects the USB anchorage or the ac adapter as the adeptness antecedent for the system. In the USB configuration, the host can access the allegation accepted from the absence bulk of best 100 mA to 500 mA through the interface. In the ac-adapter configuration, an alien resistor sets the best bulk of allegation current. The array is answerable in three phases: 

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• Conditioning   • Affiliated accepted  • Affiliated voltage 

Charge is commonly concluded based on minimum current. An centralized allegation timer provides a assurance advancement for allegation termination. The TPS65010 automatically restarts the allegation if the array voltage avalanche beneath an centralized threshold. The charger automatically enters beddy-bye approach back both food are removed.

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